The Raspberry Pi is a small (credit card-like size), inexpensive, portable computer that connects to real-world objects. It contains all the basics of any computer including a processor, memory and graphics processor. As such, it is capable of doing everything one would expect a regular computer to do. For instance, as browse the internet, play high definition videos, create spreadsheets, word processing and more. However, it’s important to be aware of potential Raspberry Pi Risks when using this versatile device.
With its computer-functioning capabilities, the Raspberry Pi was intended to be used for ethical purposes, which it is still used for. It can, however – through a payload – be instructed to carry out malicious, clandestine activity, thus making it a Hacked Device. With the world currently focusing on health risks, cybersecurity is taking a backseat in almost every industry. Public and private. COVID-19 has significantly affected the global economy, leading to hardships for businesses. A cyberattack will only exacerbate the situation. As such, it is imperative to address the Raspberry Pi Risks (Raspberry Pi Security). Whether the intentions of its usage are moral or not, since this device has the ability to carry out perilous cyberattacks. Mitigating an attack is wiser than dealing with the consequences of one.
Raspberry Pi Risks and Security Challenges
PoisonTap is built for Raspberry Pi and produces a cascading effect by exploiting the existing trust in various mechanisms of a machine and network to produce a snowball effect of information exfiltration. Network access and installation of semi-permanent backdoors.
P4wnP1 is a highly customizable USB attack platform for the Raspberry Pi Zero or Raspberry Pi Zero W that allows one to connect the device into a host computer. As a HID or network interface and carry out various actions.
NAC software supports network visibility and access management through policy enforcement on devices and users of corporate networks. To bypass, an attacker must access a device that has already been authenticated. In other words, a genuine device must be spoofed, which can be done with a Raspberry Pi.
The authenticated device is used to log into the network which then smuggles network packets from the Raspberry Pi by overwriting the MAC address. Making it seem as if the packets are originating from the genuine, authenticated device. From here, the attacker has access to the organization’s network and can, consequently, move laterally through it. This can allow for a variety of potential attacks such as a data breach, malware installation or Advanced Persistent Threat (APT) attack.
Advanced Persistent Threat (APT) attack
An APT, which can be carried out with a Raspberry Pi, is one of the greatest threats to an organization due to the sophisticated, specific nature of the attack.
The clandestine essence of APT thus means that the targets are frequently government agencies or critical infrastructure providers since an attack on these sectors can often cause a risk to national security. With this type of motivation, APTs are usually affiliated with nation state or state-sponsored actors, in addition
to the fact that these attacks need strong capabilities to be carried out.
APTs allow the attacker to go deep into the target’s network and do so unnoticed for long periods of time using advanced hacking methods. Hackers can use an APT attack to acquire state secrets, confidential data, and personal information of government officials, intending to employ them for acts of sabotage or even terrorism.
Cyberwarfare is growing in prevalence due to nations’ economies, infrastructure, trade, business, communication, transport and more increasingly relying on IT and IT-enabled services. An attack on any sector can cause serious damages, not only to the direct target but also introduces potential Raspberry Pi Risks.
Cyberwarfare is also cheaper and more immediate than traditional warfare. With less risk to human life, especially on the attacker’s side. And can allow smaller, weaker states to impose substantial damage on a strong adversary that would otherwise not be possible. By harming a strong adversary, smaller states have the potential to become powers in asymmetric warfare.
As a result, APTs are an appealing attack method for those with sabotage as a motive.
Due to its computer-like capabilities, the Raspberry Pi device can control a medical ventilator by setting the air pressure, opening and closing valves and regulating whether a patient needs full or partial breathing assistance. Since a ventilator has relatively low demands, the Raspberry Pi Zero is the ideal device to power it. Especially since it is inexpensive and portable. Additionally, the company producing Raspberry Pi builds to stock, rather than to order, meaning that the products are constantly on hand, which is essential during a pandemic.
However, having computer-controlled ventilators means that there are more entry points for an attacker to target the healthcare industry and introduces potential Raspberry Pi Risks (IoT Healthcare). The most frequently targeted industry at present is already the healthcare sector. Cybercriminals refer to the information stored by healthcare facilities as Personal Health Information (PHI), and it commands a price 100 times higher than Personally Identifiable Information (PII) on the black market. Furthermore, the healthcare sector is widely recognized for neglecting cybersecurity to offer more streamlined services to patients. Given the industry’s frequently urgent requirements, security measures are seen as obstacles rather than assistance.
Raspberry Pi Risks in Network Security
The clandestine nature stands as one of the major risks associated with a Raspberry Pi device. Its small physical size allows it to be discreetly embedded within peripherals or introduced into the network, evading human detection. When employed as a USB attack tool, security software solutions identify the device as a legitimate HID device. Thereby raising no alarms. When acting as a network implant, the device sits on the Physical Layer (Layer 1 Visibility). Which these security software solutions do not cover. Thus, the device remains entirely unnoticed, and once more, it does not give rise to any security concerns.
This is, arguably, the greatest risk.
Mitigating Enterprise Vulnerabilities: Unveiling Raspberry Pi Risks and Hardware Security Challenges
Many times, enterprises’ IT and security teams struggle in providing complete and accurate visibility into their hardware assets. Especially in today’s extremely challenging IT/OT/IoT environment. This is due to the fact that often, there is a lack of visibility, which leads to a weakened policy enforcement of hardware access. This may result in security accidents, such as ransomware attacks, data leakage, etc.
To tackle this challenge, you need to achieve ultimate visibility into your hardware assets. Irrespective of their characteristics and the interface attackers use for connection. Moreover, it is important to be practical and adjust to the dynamic Cyber security defenses put in place to block them, as well as take advantage of the “blind” spots. Mainly through USB Human Interface Device (HID) emulating devices or Physical layer network implants.
In addition to the deep visibility layer, a comprehensive policy enforcement mechanism recommends on best practice policy and allows the administrator to define a strict, or more granular, set of rules for the system to enforce.
Sepio is the leader in the Rogue Device Mitigation (RDM) market and is disrupting the cybersecurity industry by uncovering hidden hardware attacks operating over network and USB interfaces. Sepio’s solution, identifies, detects and handles all peripherals; no device goes unmanaged.
The only company in the world to undertake Physical Layer Visibility fingerprinting, Sepio calculates a digital fingerprint using the device descriptors of all connected peripherals and compares them against a known set of malicious devices, automatically blocking any attacks. With Machine Learning, the software analyses device behavior to identify abnormalities, such as a mouse acting as a keyboard.
Managing Raspberry Pi Risks: Complete Visibility, Control, and Mitigation with Sepio
Complete Visibility of all Hardware Assets
With all devices and anomalies detected, enterprises benefit from a greater overall cybersecurity posture. Gaining full visibility of all hardware devices from endpoint peripherals to connected devices (IT/OT/IoT). Sepio uses unique physical layer hardware fingerprinting technology and data augmentation from endpoints and networks.
Full Control through Predefined Policies
Enterprise-wide policies enable compliance, regulation and best practices. With predefined templates and no baselining or whitelisting, and no requirement for a clean environment start, Sepio provides a fast and easy setup.
Rogue Device Mitigation (RDM)
Threat mitigation upon discovery of rogue or threatening devices. Integrations with existing security platforms such as NACs and SOARs for mitigation and remediation enhancements.Download White paper